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# Commercial Real Estate ArticlesProforma Income Statement Terms and Methodsfor Investment and Development Cash Flow Analysis

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## Accounting Rate of Return article

### How is the Accounting Rate of Return calculated for commercial real estate investments and developments? What are the factors that the Accounting Rate of Return takes into consideration when shown in a proforma income statement, and what is ignored? Why is the Accounting Rate of Return useful for investment real estate? These are the questions that are explored using the Proforma Example in this article. Start a 7 Day Free Trial

 Video Title: Learn about the Accounting Rate of ReturnVideo Publication_Date: Wednesday, October 25, 2017Video Duration: 2:44Video Description:The topic for this commercial real estate investment analysis video is Accounting Rate of Return. Throughout the video planEASe Software is used to illustrate Accounting Rate of Return. The video does not use the current Proforma Example, but all the factors that the Accounting Rate of Return are sensitive to are covered.

How is the Accounting Rate of Return calculated?
Before Tax
Net Operating Cash Flow + Equity Buildup + Appreciation / Initial Equity = Accounting Rate of Return Before Tax as %
so \$400,000 / \$1,000,000 = 40%
Afet Tax
Net Operating Cash Flow After Tax + Equity Buildup + Appreciation / Initial Equity = Accounting Rate of Return After Tax as %
so \$300,000 / \$1,000,000 = 30%
Let's use the current Proforma Income Statement Example to look at how the Accounting Rate of Return can be used.

Downpayment = \$1,023,344
 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Total Gross Income \$365,472 \$372,443 \$370,410 \$376,040 \$384,217 \$414,321 Less: Vacancy & Credit Loss 19,084 3,202 14,620 5,049 3,501 50,321 Effective Income \$346,387 \$369,241 \$355,790 \$370,992 \$380,717 \$364,000 Total Operating Expenses \$69,400 \$71,244 \$73,141 \$75,094 \$77,103 \$79,170 Net Operating Income \$276,987 \$297,997 \$282,649 \$295,898 \$303,614 \$284,830 Total Debt Service \$230,823 \$230,823 \$230,823 \$230,823 \$230,823 \$230,823 Net Operating Cash Flow \$46,164 \$67,174 \$51,826 \$65,075 \$72,791 \$54,007 Sale Value \$3,329,006 \$3,591,128 \$3,800,275 \$3,698,723 \$3,795,175 \$3,560,371 Less: Loan Repayment 2,164,359 2,113,745 2,141,394 2,079,651 2,012,784 1,940,367 Accounting RoR Before Tax 24.30% 1.17% 22.32%

In this case the 2012 Accounting Rate of Return was calculated by:

 2012's increase in Sale Value \$3,698,723 - \$3,800,275 + 2012's Equity Buildup (Loan Repayment) 2,141,394 - 2,079,651 + 2012 Net Operating Cash Flow \$51,826 divided by Initial Equity \$1,023,344 equals the 2012 Accounting Rate of Return 1.17%

Considers:
• Price, Original Loan Amount, Scheduled Income (Current Year Only), Debt Payment (Current Year Only), Vacancies (Current Year Only), Expenses (Current Year Only), Sale Proceeds Increase (Current Year Only)
Ignores:
Why is Accounting Rate of Return useful?

Accounting Rate of Return is not commonly used in commercial real estate analysis. It is a Return on Investment (ROI) type ratio where the cash flow is divided by an investment. The ratio is basically just like the Cash on Cash ratio with the one year's rise of sale value and decrease in loan principal added to the cash flow side of the ratio. This ratio can, therefore, increase the understanding of the Cash on Cash ratio.

What is the Accounting Rate of Return Sensitive to:

Scheduled Income (Current Year Only), Debt Payment (Current Year Only), Vacancies (Current Year Only), Expenses (Current Year Only), Sale Proceeds Increase (Current Year Only)

The Accounting Rate of Return is shown in these planEASe Reports:

Written by
Michael Feakins, CCIM
of planEASe Software